赵宇楠,程震霞,井润田.平台组织交互设计及演化机制探究[J].管理科学,2019,32(3):3-15
平台组织交互设计及演化机制探究
Interface Design and Evolving Mechanism of Platform Organization
投稿时间:2018-10-30  修订日期:2019-04-25
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1672-0334.2019.03.001
中文关键词:  平台组织  交互设计  演化机制  NK模型
英文关键词:platform organization  interface design  evolving mechanism  NK model
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(71432005,71802137)
作者单位E-mail
赵宇楠 上海交通大学 安泰经济与管理学院上海 200030 zhaoyunan@sjtu.edu.cn 
程震霞 上海交通大学 安泰经济与管理学院上海 200030 zhenxiacheng@sjtu.edu.cn 
井润田 上海交通大学 安泰经济与管理学院上海 200030 rtjing@sjtu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
        信息技术的高速发展对现有产业生态和企业组织方式产生重大影响,一些新兴的组织形态不断产生,其中探索和构建平台组织理论尤其重要。平台组织作为一种近解构系统,已有研究多侧重对演化能力和模块化作用的分析,对近解构系统的纵向维度(即权力维度)缺乏足够关注。
        从平台组织管理实践中遇到的困惑出发,针对平台组织中以交互部分设计为代表的控制与演化的平衡问题,结合NK模型表达平台组织中的现实关系,进行仿真建模实验,依次探究平台组织在不同时期对小微模块适合的控制程度、小微模块不同演化方式对平台组织绩效的作用效果,以及不同维度环境变化中平台组织交互部分和演化机制的设计思路。
        研究结果表明,①平台组织在发展初期对小微模块弱控制、强演化有利于取得更快的绩效提升,在发展成熟期对小微模块采取较强控制有利于取得更好的整体绩效;②平台组织本地搜寻与跨企业重构演化方式结合能够协同提升整体绩效,进入发展成熟期后采用跨模块重构方式不利于整体绩效提升;③比较环境变化的频率与影响范围两个维度,在频繁环境变化中平台组织本地搜寻演化方式对企业绩效的提升作用被更大程度地减弱,在大范围的环境变化中重构演化方式对企业绩效的提升作用被更大程度地减弱;④平台组织在高频环境变化中弱化对小微模块的控制,在低频环境变化中对小微模块实施较强控制有利于提升企业整体绩效。
        利用复杂性方法建构平台组织的正式模型,从组织设计和演化机制两方面发展和丰富了平台组织理论,推动理论更进一步向实证检验的方向发展。研究中强调演化优势之外的权力维度对平台组织的重要性,发现平台组织在多种演化方式的协同上展现出相对于纯模块化组织的优势。建议管理者对组织架构和权力结构区分看待,并在模仿实践后兼顾学习和探索。
英文摘要:
        The rapid development of information technology has a major impact on the existing industrial ecology and organizational structures. Some emerging organizational forms continue to emerge, and the exploration and building of platform organization theory is particularly of great importance. As a kind of nearly decomposable system, platform organization focused more on its evolutionary capability and modularization advantage in the existing research, and lacks sufficient attention to the vertical dimension of the nearly decomposable system, that is, the power dimension. Based on the confusion encountered in the platform organization management practice, we develop a formal simulation model that allows us to carefully examine the dynamics of control and evolution through interface design in the platform organization. In the first experiment, we explored the appropriate degree of control over micro-enterprises of platform organizations in different periods. In the second experiment, we investigated the effects of different evolving patterns of micro-enterprises on the performance of platform organization. And in the third experiment, we explored the degree of control and evolving patterns again taking different dimensions of environment changes into consideration.
        The results suggest that for platform organizations: ①In the early stage of development, taking weak control over micro-enterprises and emphasizing evolution are more likely to achieve faster performance improvement, while in the mature stage, taking relatively stronger control over micro-enterprises is more likely to achieve better overall performance; ②Combining local search with cross-firm recombination can achieve synergy to improve overall performance, however in the mature stage, combining with cross-module recombination weakens overall performance improvement; ③Frequent environmental changes weaken the positive relationship between local search and overall performance to a greater extent, while wider range of environmental changes weaken the positive relationship between recombination and overall performance to a greater extent; ④Taking weak control over micro-enterprises in frequent environment changes, and strong control over micro-enterprises in wide range of environmental changes are more likely to improve overall performance.
        This paper proposes the formal model of platform organization, and contributes to the development and enrichment of platform organization theory in the field of organization design and evolving mechanism, pushing the theoretical development to the direction of empirical testing. This paper emphasizes the importance of power dimension of platform organization besides its evolutionary advantage, and finds that the platform organization exhibits advantages over pure modular structures in the aspect of synergy in evolving patterns. This study suggests that managers should distinguish between organizational structure and power structure, and take learning and exploration into account after imitations.
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