杨桂菊,程兆谦,侯丽敏,李斌,等.代工企业转型升级的多元路径研究[J].管理科学,2017,30(4):124-138
代工企业转型升级的多元路径研究
The Research on the Multiple Paths of OEM Enterprises Transition and Upgrading
投稿时间:2016-10-17  修订日期:2017-05-23
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1672-0334.2017.04.009
中文关键词:  转型升级  多元路径  代工生产  代工设计  自主品牌
英文关键词:transition and upgrading  multiple paths  original equipment manufacturer  original design manufacturer  original brand manufacturer
基金项目:国家社会科学基金(17BGL042)
作者单位E-mail
杨桂菊 华东理工大学 商学院上海 200237 yangguiju123@126.com 
程兆谦 浙江工商大学 工商管理学院杭州 310018 mac_cheng@163.com 
侯丽敏 华东理工大学 商学院上海200237 liminh@163.com 
李斌 上海财经大学 国际工商管理学院上海200433 lbhigher@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
       对代工企业的研究,理论界大多支持代工生产-代工设计-自主品牌的升级路径,但该观点与代工企业的实践并不相符。许多已经建立自主品牌的代工企业,仍然以代工组装和代工设计业务为主,并积极开拓不同形态的代工业务。
       针对上述矛盾,采用纵向多案例比较的研究方法,以北京好利阀业、上海岱美、富士康3家企业为例,基于非研发创新和需求拉动创新等理论视角,对代工企业转型升级的多元路径进行探索性案例研究。通过对3家案例企业的升级阶段、升级模式、客户需求和核心能力的证据资料对比分析,重新构建U形曲线的代工企业转型升级新路径。
       研究结果表明,对于代工企业,尤其是资金、技术和人才不足的代工企业而言,代工生产-代工设计-自主品牌的升级路径并非连续且必要的升级路径。切实有效的升级模式是在客户需求的拉动下,代工生产企业通过持续不断地创新产品和服务问题解决方案、创新产品研发设计和服务流程、通过自主设计以及发展多元业务等,最终实现转型升级。
       上述结论从产品和服务两个维度,将代工企业的升级细化为4个阶段和7个环节,突破了已有聚焦在代工生产-代工设计-自主品牌直线升级的惯性逻辑,进一步细化和丰富了全球价值链以及微笑曲线的环节。
       研究结果明确了品牌客户持续提升的需求是拉动代工企业转型升级的根本动力,代工企业应该重视客户需求,并鼓励品牌客户多提要求、提高要求。非研发创新是资源短缺的代工企业突破路径依赖、实现转型升级的有效模式。
英文摘要:
       Realizing the transition and upgrading of enterprises from OEM-ODM-OBM has long occupied the mainstream views of OEM studies. Many theoretical ideas make more and more supporters believe that it is imperative for OEM upgrading to OBM, because local OEM costs much more resources, yet the value-added is low. However, the theoretical conclusion is not in line with the practice of OEM. Many OEMs have set up their own brands, while they are still working in the OEM (the Original Equipment Manufacturer) business and ODM(the Original Design Manufacturer) business. Meanwhile, the OEMs are actively exploring different forms of OEM business.
       Aimed at the above contradictions, this study adopted the longitudinal comparative case research method, and used Beijing HAOLI FA, Shanghai DAIMAY and FOXCOON as cases. Based on the theory of non-R&D innovation and Demand drives innovation, through exploratory case studies, this research analyzed the multiple paths of transition and upgrading about OEMs.
       Through the data comparison and analysis of upgrading stages, upgrading paths, customer demands and core capacities about the three case enterprises, this research reconstructed the new u-shaped curve path of transition and upgrading about OEM.
       The results showed that the transition and upgrading path from OEM to ODM to OBM for OEM enterprises, especially for those OEM short of the capital, technology and talent, is not continuous and of necessary upgrading path. Effective promotion mode is: under the pull of the customer demands, OEM can realize the transition and upgrading through continuous innovation on product and service solutions to problems. OEM can also realize the transition and upgrading through innovative product development design and service process, independent design, the diversified business development and so on.
       From two dimensions of product and service, this research divided the transition and upgrading path of OEM into four stages and seven links, and the conclusion broke the inertia logic of straight line upgrading from OEM to OBM. The results enriched the global value chain and smile curve segments.
       The results confirm that continuous improving demands of customers on products and services are the ultimate power of pulling OEM enterprises upgrading. The OEMs should pay more attention to customer demands, and encourage brand customers to raise more demands. The result also shows that non-R&D innovation is the effective mode to realize the transition and upgrading of the OEM enterprises short of resources.
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